CALCULUS FROM THE BLADDER
No clinical details are available regarding this patient, except that this specimen was removed from the bladder.
The specimen is an ovoid calculus 55 x 43 mm in diameter, sawn in two and mounted to display the cut and external surfaces. The external surface is dark brown in colour with a granular texture and nodules 5 to 10 mm in diameter projecting from the surface. The cut surface consists of pale fawn laminated material surrounded by a zone of dark brown laminated material 4 mm thick. This is an example of a mixed vesical calculus.
The factors leading to the formation of bladder calculi are the same as those involved in the formation of renal calculi. These factors include an increased urinary concentration of stone constituents, altered urinary pH, stasis and the presence of local infection. Calculi may form in situ in the bladder or may pass into the bladder from the renal pelvis and ureter.